Situation Analysis & Formative Research Consultant for the Plastic Reduction Project in Disaster Affected Areas, Central Sulawesi Province

Yayasan Indonesia Bhadra Utama (IBU Foundation) is focused on development issues which include Health (maternal, adolescent and child newborn health), Livelihood (women and youth empowerment), Nutrition (infant and young child feeding, micronutrient supplementation), Education (early child development, inclusive education, and life skill education), Disaster Risk Reduction (safe school and community-based disaster risk reduction and also Humanitarian Response which include Health (Mother and Children Nutrition Health), Nutrition (infant and young child Feeding in emergency, nutrition surveillance and several acute malnutrition), Management mental health psychosocial support, and Waste Management, Sanitation and Hygiene.

IBU Foundation invites applications from individual consultants/firms/research organizations dealing with health and development intervention programs to carry out formative research for the Plastic Project in Di Disaster Affected Areas of Central Sulawesi Province 2019.


IBU Foundation collaborated with Help e.v. from Germany to implement the Plastic Reduction Project in 25 villages in Palu and Sigi. The project goal is to contribute to reducing plastic pollution in disaster affected areas in Central Sulawesi. The project will be implemented for 18 months from 15st July 2019 to 31st January 2021.

The project concept is divided into four high level strategies (Adopted from “MODULE 1:  Understanding the Social Ecological Model (SEM) and Communication for Development (C4D)” by UNICEF):

  1. Increasing individual knowledge, attitudes, motivations, self-efficacy, skills building, and behavior change connected with plastic consumptions in the areas.
  2. Increase collaboration between stakeholders to transform their social systems through utilization of their well-define needs, demand their rights and participatory process that will provide social changes for plastic reduction in the areas.
  3. Working toward unified partnership between stakeholders and within community levels and creating environment that will enable the collective efficacy and empowerment within partners and community for the reduction of plastic use in the areas
  4. Improving Local government capacity in regulation, policies and administrative practices that will regulate the production/distribution/reduction of single-use plastic in the areas.

The project has three outcomes:

  1. Local Governments issue regulation and policies on regulating production/distribution/reduction of single use plastic in the areas.
  2. Business communities and other stakeholders involved in the initiatives to recycle single used plastic and replace single use-plastic with other environmentally friendly products.
  3. Public in the areas has awareness on the importance of reducing the use of plastic consumption especially the single used plastic (e.g. plastic bag/plastic straw).

The intervention activities will be divided into two major streams, there are:

  1. Implementation of communication for development strategy and advocacy to reduce the use of Single use Plastic in targeted location.
  2. Establishing Small Business Enterprises that recycle plastic and produce alternative product to single-use plastics.

The beneficiaries covered by this project are consisted of:

As part of its inception phase, the IBU Foundation requires to conduct situation analysis and formative research. The research will enable IBU Foundation to know the prevalence of the target behaviours (e.g. % of plastic use reduction) that is useful to identify the main gap in practice and to monitor the progress. This will also help the IBU Foundation to understand the sociocultural context that will help to identify how to create a supportive environment for the development of the interventions that need to be done.


The Situation Analysis and Formative research is an assessment which informs the design of effective behaviour change activities by gaining understanding about the local context where the behaviours take place, and by identifying key barriers and enablers. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are combined in the assessment.

The methodology follows the steps of the ANALYZE block of the ABC model (see FIGURE 1 – Adopted from Learning about People, Places, & Perception for Effective Assisting Behaviour Chance (ABC Programming” By Action Against Hunger, March 2018).

THE LITERATURE REVIEW aims to summarize what is already known about the local context, the priority group and its practices related to the behaviors promoted in the project. It helps to identify what information is still missing and should be investigated in the field. It informs the selection of the behaviour for the barrier analysis by highlighting existing gaps in current practice.

THE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT helps to gain a better understanding of the context where the behaviors take place and of the people involved: what they do, how, and why they do so. It contributes to the description of the priority group in the design for behavior change (DBC) framework. It gives valuable information on how to communicate effectively, and with which media and communication channels. Finally, the community assessment is an opportunity to dialogue with community members and find out what would be the best solution to facilitate behavior adoption in their opinions.

THE BARRIER ANALYSIS (BA) explores determinants (The determinants are categories of reasons why someone does or does not do a behavior. Determinants represent a person’s feelings, beliefs, or other elements within his or her environment that support or prevent the behavior). influencing behaviors and identifies which are the most important barriers and enablers to behavior change. The BA identifies the main influencing groups for a given behavior. This is helpful for prioritizing activities and better managing resources by highlighting what is more likely to have a strong behavior change effect. This part may include Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs). Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) Giving Participants a Voice in Program Design, Manoff group. are recommended guideline.

COMPLEMENTARY RESEARCH is often necessary to refine the formative research. Most of the time, some results are difficult to understand and require further research. The BA findings indicate who are the influencing groups and how the priority group perceives their attitudes. Conducting additional focus group discussions (FGD) with influencing groups is useful to investigate their actual attitude. Complementary research is necessary when the research highlighted the design of a tool as the main issue preventing the practice (e.g. the energy-saving stove is too heavy and takes too much time to cook, so nobody wants to use it). In this case, TIPs or human-centered design approaches can be used to improve the tool’s design.


This Situation Analysis and Formative Research will help to inform the following programmatic decision:

  1. Set up priority group; Defining clearly the priority group helps to reduce the scope of the formative research and better tailors the intervention to its profile and preferences.
  2. Understand the way of life and daily routine; his daily routine and way of life information provide concrete tips for activity planning: when people are available, existing meeting locations and events that can be used as a platform for activities, and effective and appropriate communication channels.
  3. Key Actors and Influencing Groups; the key actors in the community are locally respected and influential people. They do not necessarily have a direct influence on the target behavior, but they often have an important role in communication channels and social mobilization. The “influencing groups” are people whose opinions matter to the priority group and influence their practice.
  4. The proportion of people already practicing the target behavior among the priority group;
  5. Local Social and Cultural Context; It is critical to understand the perspective of the people one wishes to influence: their values, motivations and goals, perceptions of the world, how they relate to each other as individuals and as groups, and how decisions are made and who is part of the decision-making Understanding the sociocultural context helps to identify how to create a supportive environment
  6. Identify the Stage of Change of the Priority Group and Influencing Group.
  7. Presence of enabling environment, enabling factors, and services that facilitate access; the priority group will feel frustrated and unable to perform the behavior if asked to do something out of its control. Developing activities that create an enabling environment is critical to triggering change. The environment encompasses individuals, community, and societal levels. Creating a favorable environment requires giving or facilitating physical access, as well as advocacy and policymaking.

Therefore, the Main Objective of this Situation Analysis and Formative Research will be:

  • To improve understanding of the area of intervention and inform the design of a behavior change strategy.
  • Describe relevant characteristics of the people involved in the behavior of interest: socio-demographic characteristics; a way of life and daily routine; current practices, knowledge, and attitude regarding the behaviour; traditions or cultural beliefs linked to those practices; gender roles and dynamics.
  • Identify the main factors inhibiting and facilitating behavior adoption.
  • Provide concrete recommendations to guide behavior change activities.

Secondary Objectives:

  • To conduct a literature review and community assessment, including at least the following parameters:
    • Identify main stakeholders in the community involved in the behavior of interest (e.g. plastic waste and waste management).
    • Clarify how community organization and mechanisms, family and gender dynamics influence the behaviors of interest.
    • Describe socio-demo characteristics and way of living of the individuals and groups involved in the behavior of interest.
    • Describe current perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes specifically related to the behaviors of interest.
    • Identify positive existing practices the project should encourage to promote the behavior of interest.
    • Identify formal and informal channels of communication, preferred tools, events and platforms for sharing information.
    • Determine how specific practices, beliefs, and attitudes that prevent the adoption of the behavior of interest.
    • Identify specific practices, beliefs, and attitudes that support or facilitate the adoption of the behavior of interest.
  • To conduct a barrier analysis:
    • Select the most critical behaviors to be investigated in the barrier analysis; based on project data and potential positive impact on outcomes.
    • Identify the most important determinants that influence the behavior of interest.
    • Make concrete and realistic recommendations to address barriers and enhance enablers.
    • Train IBU Foundation teams and key partners in the barrier analysis methodology.
    • Develop a strategy of behavior change, including clear guidance for implementation and tools for field workers.
    • Train field workers on the strategy developed, content, methodology, and tools.


The analysis will apply a qualitative methodology to gather key data in order to inform program implementation. Furthermore, the consultant will be requested to conduct several analytical stages including:

  1. Literature review, Community Assessment, Barrier Analysis, and Complimentary Research, Stakeholders analysis.
  2. The consultant must work closely with IBU Foundation team for Plastic Reduction to capture what are the program objectives and strategies of the intervention programs.

 Document Review

Along with project proposal, log frame, review of existing legal documents, national and local governments programmes and strategies in the field of waste management  applied in Indonesia especially plastic waste as well as past research literature dealing with legal and policy provisions on waste management and plastic waste management and its challenges form part of the document review.

There are documents that can be used as basic information in the formation of the programs:

  1. MODULE 1: Understanding the Social Ecological Model (SEM) and Communication for Development (C4D)” by UNICEF
  2. Learning about People, Places, & Perception for Effective Assisting Behaviour Chance (ABC Programming” By Action Against Hunger, March 2018.
  3. Using the theory of Change in the development implementation and evaluation of complex health interventions, by MHN

Scope of Work

The scope of work of the Consultant(s) will include the following but not limited to:

  • Develop assessment instruments with IBU Foundation input through a comprehensive inception report in English. The KII and other instruments checklists need to be translated into Bahasa Indonesia once approved by IBU Foundation
  • Carry out the literature review, document analysis, and interviews and other methodologies.
  • Produce core content report (in English) covering key findings, major conclusions, and recommendations in order to help inform the development of the program. Once the report is finalized, it needs to be translated into Bahasa Indonesia.

 Key Duties of Consultant

  1. Collect, analyze, and document information related to Waste management and Plastic waste management (4 R – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Replace) and other assigned areas
  2. Use the data generated by a separate quantitative survey to complete the qualitative findings
  3. Interviewing selected key informants and conduct other methodologies with different stakeholders and beneficiaries
  4. Produced a report based on a report template agreed with Project Manager of Plastic Reduction Project and furnish a set of recommendations based on research findings and best practices.
  5. Outline tools to monitor the behavior changes in connection with the intervention programs.
  6. Present research findings to IBU Foundation and its stakeholders

 Timeline and Deliverables

Selection period: 30 Sep – 9 Oct 2019

Consultancy period: 9 Oct – 10 Nov 2019. Within the consultancy period, the consultant is expected to complete the above-mentioned scope of work.

The deliverables and activities deadlines are as follows:


The schedule of payment of the consultancy fee is as follows:

  1. 50% will be paid upon approval of an implementation plan and Inception Report.
  2. 50% will be paid upon completion and approval of the final report (in English and Indonesia). No Payment (second installment) will be made unless the report is approved by the Project Manager of the Plastic Reduction Project and Senior Management Team of IBU Foundation.

Supervision of the Consultant

The consultant will work under the Project Manager of Plastic Reduction Project in collaboration with the program staff and the Senior Management Team of IBU Foundation.


  • Experiences in conducting a situation analysis and formative research are essential; preferably to have an ethnographer research background.
  • Proven track record of writing a high quality fully edited report in English and Bahasa.
  • Good understanding of environmental/health issues especially on plastic waste management themes.
  • Proven quantitative and qualitative research skills (candidates should provide a copy of past research, baseline or    evaluation reports written in English);
  • Work experience in Indonesia;
  • Fluent in English and Bahasa Indonesia.
  • Having high-level interpersonal and cross-cultural skills, including the ability to build collaborative relationships internally and externally
  • Having sensitivity to cultural, ethnic, social and political issues.

Other Duties:

  • Comply with the regulations and policies of the organization, including child protection and Protection against Sexual, Exploitation, and Abuse (PSEA) policies.
  • Managing of the work environment in accordance with practical guidelines, rules, and program team arrangements to ensure the health and safety of team members.

Application process:

Interested candidates should send their CV, technical proposal, financial proposal (detailing the cost calculations), and one sample of research or baseline study led by the applicant and written in English to and before or by 9 October 2019 (11.30 PM). Short-listed offerors are contacted for the further selection process. Telephone calls and office visits for inquiries are not entertained. They could be the basis for disqualification.